When it comes to compelling evidence of a solid surface on the sun,
seeing is believing. The TRACE and
SOHO programs use very sophisticated software to create what are called
difference" images like the top image from TRACE and the chronologically ordered examples
from SOHO shown on
the right. These images were created by NASA at the frequency of various
iron ions, using software that
essentially compares sequential snapshots, subtracting one set of images from
the other, and thereby isolating only the more consistent and "stronger"
features from each image. This image processing technique creates a very
detailed "snapshot" of the stronger, more obvious features of the iron
calcium ferrite surface of the
sun that lies below the photosphere.
It is said that a picture is worth a thousand words. If that is true, then
the sequential photos on the right and these types of
high resolution running difference SOHO
images speak volumes. These
movies were created by "stringing together" a series of these running difference
images from many consecutive days, and they show persisted rigid surface
The SOHO satellite took a
remarkable series of these running difference images from October 5th 2004
through October 15th 2004 which I have put together into movie form.
You'll notice as you watch these movies and view the chronological images on the
right, that the surface features are consistent from image to image and the
surface features rotate uniformly from left to right in the same direction and
at the same speed as the sun's rotation.
SOHO created a newer, more complete, and more methodical series of
these images starting on
May 26th of 2005. I have created a second movie from a series
of these images collected from late May through early June of 2005.
As you can see from the series of snapshots on the right, and
from the movies, we can make out more than just a single random pattern emerging from just one
composite image. Instead we can see
a CONSISTENT set of surface features in these images that MOVE from left to right as the
sun rotates. These features are completely consistent and move UNIFORMLY across the surface.
words, they do not move at
different rates near the equator than than they move at the poles like the
photosphere. Whatever this "structure" is, it absolutely cannot be the
photosphere or the chromosphere because of it's consistency. This
photographic evidence stands in direct opposition to
present theories of the sun
which claim that the sun is a giant ball of gas and has no solid surface below
If Galileo assumed that the sun was not solid simply because it's OUTER
"surface" layer (really just a liquid-like photosphere) did not move uniformly,
then this uniformity of movement and rigidly defined surface definition turns
the tables 180 degrees! The foundational pillar of the gas model theory is
laid to waste in these uniformly moving images. We now need a new model of
the sun. The old one doesn't work.
Such a remarkably consistent set of discernable features could only be possible
if the sun has a solid surface to create such consistent surface patterns.
A close-up of this surface is provided by the
TRACE satellite as well using the 171 angstrom (Fe IX,X) filter. The
photosphere is far to
"liquid-like" to explain these images.
We must note that these outlined features do not change much from frame to frame
as the sun rotates, and do not follow the same patterns of rotation as the
photosphere above it.
No part of this surface image moves at a different rate speed from any other part.
I "morphed" one still shot to the next to simulate movement and show the
consistency from one still frame to the next. I did not alter the still
shots in any way. They are exactly as you will find them on SOHO'S
IMO, this series of "running difference" images represents the best and most
compelling scientific evidence that we have available to us to demonstrate a
solid surface on the sun. Seeing is certainly believing! These images not only
only reveal the surface details with remarkable precision, they reveal these
features with great REPETITION and complete consistency. It's the
repetitive nature of these features that is most intriguing. The consistency of
these images prove that there must be a solid surface on the sun to create them
and prove that the sun does not rotate at different speeds at the equator than
it does at it's poles.
of these filters suggest this surface is made of ferrite iron, and ferrite ions
flow from the surface due to electrical activity.
NASA is using a very
clever combination of sophisticated software imaging techniques taken at a very
(195 angstroms). This energy spectrum combined with this imaging technique isolates the
sun's surface making it clearly visible in these images. That particularly frequency,
using this specific imaging technique brings the
actual surface of the sun into view,
just as helium filters reveal the surface of the chromosphere that sits above
In essence, that specific frequency is the key to looking beneath the
chromosphere and beneath the photosphere to view the surface itself much as a
radar image can look beneath cloud cover to reveal the surface below. The SOHO software that enhances
and produces these "running difference" images is simply amazing!
The detail of the surface that is revealed in these images is incredible.
Keep in mind however that the sun experiences a powerful electrical flow
which erodes the surface very dynamically causing bursts of heat, and MASSIVE
surface erosion patterns. The surface of sun can change significantly from
one rotation to the next, particularly during the suns "active" cycles, where
it's magnetic poles point toward the equator. The whole surface is
"percolating" and oozing energy flows from the core, making the whole surface
"energized" and active as it changes over time due to electrical erosion.
I would like to thank to Stein Vidar Hagfors Haugan at NASA for patiently, and I
do mean patiently, explaining these images and how they were created.