Solar blog...


SDO Begins Rewriting The Book On Solar Physics 

First Light From SDO:  Click On The Image To View A Higher Resolution Image

Just how important is SDO to solar physics research and to astronomy in the 21st century?   With just one single composite image from SDO’s release of first light images, NASA's newest solar spacecraft has falsified current solar theory, it has demonstrated conclusively that we live inside of an electric universe, and it has helped the Birkeland solar model pass it’s first and most important scientific test on it's way toward eventually replacing current solar theory.   

The single most important distinction between the standard solar model and the Birkeland solar model relates to the location of the origin of iron ion light from the sun in relationship to the surface of the photosphere.  The Birkeland solar model “predicts” that the iron ion light from the sun comes from inside of electrified coronal loops that actually originate underneath of the highly ionized neon photosphere.  The Birkeland solar model also predicts that the iron ion light from the coronal loops can be seen below the surface of the highly ionized photosphere and that the coronal loops should be seen rising up and through the surface of the photosphere in the high energy iron ion wavelengths. 

That prediction of being able to observe iron ion lines under the surface of the photosphere stands in stark contrast to current solar theory which “predicts” that the photosphere itself is “opaque” to all wavelengths of light at approximately 500KM.  Furthermore, standard theory predicts that iron ion light at very high energy states that enter the photosphere would be very likely to photoionize various elements in the photosphere at a distance measured in meters rather than kilometers, less than a single pixel in the SDO images.  Current theory predicts that the iron ion light should not be visible to any significant depth beneath the surface of the photosphere.  It predicts that iron ion light would become visible only as the coronal loop reaches the upper atmosphere of the sun and heats up inside the chromosphere and lower corona.  

These are mutually exclusive predictions and vasty different predictions.  Only one of these solar theories can be accurate.  Until the SDO program, solar imagery simply lacked the resolution necessary, and the design parameters that were required to conclusively distinguish between the two competing solar models.  SDO however represents a quantum leap forward in solar image resolution and wavelength coverage.     SDO’s 16 megapixel resolution, and its sophisticated hardware design are specifically intended to isolate the origin of these sources of light in relationship to the photosphere and to the chromosphere with high precision.  Either these iron lines are blocked under the opaque surface of the photosphere, or they are visible far under the photosphere, but both options cannot be true.   Only one model can be validated, and the other model is automatically eliminated and falsified based on the location of the origin of these high energy wavelengths.    

SDO first composite image showing the chromosphere/photosphere bourndary in relationship to the iron ion light shows that the light from these high energy ions originates between 4800 and 6000 kilometers *underneath* of the surface of the photosphere just as the Birkeland solar model predicts.  Current solar theory has been falsified by SDO, and the most important, and significantly different prediction of the Birkeland solar model has been verified in high resolution. 

The Green Iron Ion Light Shines Under The Photosphere As Predicted By The Birkeland Solar Model

This zoomed in image shows the sun at about the 6:00 position near the bottom of the high resolution image.  The red/orange ring around the sun in the composite image represents the photosphere/chromosphere boundary where the helium II ions can be seen emitting orange light from the chromosophere.  The smooth inside edge of that orange ring represents the photosphere boundary where the photosphere meets up with the visible orange chromosphere.  The bright green light between the darkened limb of the sun, and the orange chromosphere demonstrates conclusively that the light from the iron ion wavelengths can be seen far below the surface of the photosphere, originating some 4800-6000Km below the surface of the photosphere.   Birkeland’s key solar prediction has held up to high resolution scrutiny whereas current theory has been falsified and falsified in a way that defies repair without accepting that we live inside of an electric universe. 

Consistent Evidence Of Limb Darkening Under The Photosphere Can Be Observed At About 4800KM Around The Whole  Disk

The only way for the iron lines and limb darkening to be visible at these depths is for the atmosphere of the sun to be highly ionized by current flows between the solar surface (darkened limb in the SDO images) and the heliosphere, through a highly ionized silicon and neon medium.  The photosphere of the sun is a highly ionized form of neon, Ne+4 and Ne+5 radiating at a very high energy state. That is why the light from the iron ion wavelengths are not absorbed by the photosphere in mere meters as they would be in standard theory.  It is only possible to see light from under the photosphere if the solar atmosphere is a ‘current carrying’ medium as envisioned by Birkeland.  A non energetic surface that radiated at 6K degrees with all the elements present would quickly absorb iron ion wavelengths as the high energy light photoionized various elements in the photosphere.   Only if the medium is already at a higher energy state than is envisions by the standard model is this image even possible.  Not only must standard theory be thrown out, all non electric solar theories must also be discarded.  The only way to explain these images is by realizing that the photosphere is highly ionized by the current flowing from the surface of the sun to the heliosphere.   

Flare Seen In SDO With More Evidence Of Limb Darkening In The Photosphere At About 4800km

Thanks to SDO, the Birkeland solar model has passed its first and most important empirical test with flying colors.   No other solar model correctly predicted the origin of the iron ion wavelengths.   A second key ‘prediction” in a Birkeland solar model relates to the neon photosphere.  In a Birkeland solar model the sun’s atmosphere is layered and the neon in the photosphere is highly ionized to a +4 to +5 energy state.  We should expect to observe the photosphere brightly lit in the Ne+4 and Ne+3 wavelengths.  In standard theory however the solar neon emissions are assumed to be related to coronal loop activity.   At 6000 degrees, the standard solar model predicts that we should see little or no light at these wavelengths from the photosphere.  This is a second very important prediction of the Birkeland solar model.  Stay tuned for the results. J


Ring Out The Old - Ring In The New!

This white light image from LMSAL's FlaresDVD video shows coronal loops traversing the surface of the photosphere and thereby falsifying LMSAL claims about the location of solar moss and the bases of coronal loops.

As we approach 2010, a number of discoveries over the past year deserve mention because they directly confirm the theories of Kristian Birkeland, Dr. Charles Bruce and Dr. Hannes Alfven as it relates to solar flare activity and their relationship to electrical discharges.   A wonderful new paper written this year by Hakan Onel and Gottfried J. Mann demonstrates via RHESSI observations, the existence of large scale electric fields in solar flare "circuits".   Another excellent paper written by a larger team of Russian Scientists from Nobeyama Radio Observatory and the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics came out this year which uses Trace, SOHO and RHESSI observations to demonstrate that current carrying "magnetic ropes" are directly involved in flare activity.  As you may recall from revious blog entries, "magnetic ropes" are simply current carrying filaments of plasma, large scale cousins of the current carrying filaments in an ordinary plasma ball.  Both of these papers confirm the findings of an earlier paper by Marina Battaglia and Arnold Benz from 2008 that show the existence of return currents in solar flare loops. All three of these papers confirm an even earlier paper by David Tsiklauri that indeed electrical currents are responsible for solar flare activity.   It has indeed been a very good year for EU theory.

The white light image above demonstrates that NASA is correct about the placement of the bases of coronal loops, and it simultaneously falsifies LMSAL's claims about solar moss activities and their placement of the footprints of coronal loop activity.  This movie animation from the NASA archives shows NASA's placement of the bases of the coronal loops is beneath the surface of the photosphere with the loops eventually rising up and through the photosphere to "reconnect" (electrically, not magnetically) in the solar atmosphere.   NASA's position about the footprints of the loops being located under the photosphere is correct, as that white light flare image demonstrates.  We can observe the effect of the loops on the photosphere as the loops light up the photosphere along the path of the coronal loops.  This image is also congruent with other images further down this blog page that show the bases of the loops, and the "footprints" of the loops begin far *below* the photosphere, not 1200km above the photosphere as LMSAL has repeatedly claimed.  If LMSAL was correct then the white light image would not show the photosphere being lit up like a Christmas tree along the sides of the loops. 

As if on cue today, as I began rounding up the links for this blog entry, the sun decided to put on quite a show for the STEREO-Ahead satellite by belting out a CME in a nearly horizontal direction that essentially defies gas model theory.   While most CME's have a directional component, they usually point away from the surface.  In this particular instance however, the "blow out" of much of the material from the flare/CME is ejected in a nearly horizontal direction and it generates an atmospheric disturbance accross surface, but only in a *SINGLE* direction!  While this type of lateral energy discharge is consistent with a Mt. Saint Helen's type of lateral volcanic blowout, it really doesn't fit very well into contemporary gas model theory.  If as gas model theory insists that this flare activity is mainly an atmospheric event taking place inside a very light plasma atmosphere, how come there is such a strong horizontal component to the discharge, and only in *one* direction?  The lack of an "equal and opposite reaction" in the shock wave distribution pattern isn't particularly congruent with conttemporary gas model theory, but it is highly consistent with volcanic activity where the blowout of material can be highly directional, and the shock wave can be shielded in some directions by solid matter.


Merry Christmas to Plasma Cosmology Theory 2007!

The few weeks building up to Christmas 2007 have been pretty remarkable in terms of the presents that were given to Plasma cosmology theory from NASA and other institutions recently.  To understand the significance of this recent announcement from Themis team, we need to begin with an explanation/definition of a "magnetic rope" from Hannes Alfven, the father of MHD theory, from his book Cosmic Plasma: 

 "However, in cosmic plasmas the perhaps most important constriction mechanism is the electromagnetic attraction between parallel currents . A manifestation of this mechanism is the pinch effect, which was studied by Bennett long ago (1934), and has received much attention in connection with thermonuclear research . As we shall see, phenomena of this general type also exist on a cosmic scale, and lead to a bunching of currents and magnetic fields to filaments or `magnetic ropes' . This bunching is usually accompanied by an accumulation of matter, and it may explain the observational fact that cosmic matter exhibits an abundance of filamentary structures (II .4 .1) . This same mechanism may also evacuate the regions near the rope and produce regions of exceptionally low densities."

A Bennett pinch is a distinctly electrically oriented phenomenon, and it requires the flow of current through the rope to generate and create the magnetic constriction effect in the rope.  This brings us to NASA's announcement this week from the Themis program.  It seems that they observed in-situ. the presence of large scale current flows between the Sun and the Earth.

"NASA's Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission observed the dynamics of a rapidly developing substorm, confirmed the existence of giant magnetic ropes and witnessed small explosions in the outskirts of Earth's magnetic field. The findings will be presented at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco in December."...

"Angelopoulos was quite impressed with the substorm's power and he estimated the total energy of the two-hour event at five hundred thousand billion Joules. That's equivalent to the energy of one magnitude 5.5 earthquake . Where does all that energy come from? THEMIS may have found the answer.

"The satellites have found evidence of magnetic ropes connecting Earth's upper atmosphere directly to the sun," said David Sibeck, project scientist for the mission at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. "We believe that solar wind particles flow in along these ropes, providing energy for geomagnetic storms and auroras."

So now we have direct in-situ evidence that current carrying threads of plasma carry huge amount of current between the Sun and the Earth.  From an plasma cosmology/EU theory perspective, that is certainly welcome news.  Merry Christmas to EU theory from NASA via the Themis Program.

Now of course there is evidence that this pinching process that creates "tornado-like" filaments in plasma is involved in the stellar formation process.

"The surprise turned out to be a shock-wave created by a jet of material flowing through a vast cloud of interstellar gas and dust. The jet slammed into neighboring dust clouds at more than 100 miles per second, heating the dust and causing it to glow."

That really isn't surprising if we note that this is also the telltale sign of a Bennett pinch, or a "magnetic rope" caused by the flow of current through plasma.  We can watch similar filaments form inside an ordinary plasma ball.


Now this information comes on the heels of another very important finding released last month that was related to the electrical atmosphere of Venus.   It turns out that Wal Thornhill was proven right about the dynamic electrical  nature of the atmosphere of Venus and  the skeptics of Electric Universe theory have been shown to be wrong (yet again).  This lengthy (but worth it) Qucktime movie shows the solar wind's effect on Venus.  This movie is absolutely spectacular.  Thanks ESA for making this a very happy holiday for those of us in the EU/Plasma Cosmology movement. :)


*MAJOR* Hinode Breakthrough:  Evidence That Cathode Rays Power The Sun!

Here are two images of cathode ray activity, one black and white image from the lab of Kristian Birkeland from 1908, and a second image just release by the Hinode spacecraft mission team.  Just as in Birkeland's model, we observe cathode ray activity from our own sun.  This confirms the predictive usefulness of Birkeland's solar model, and it demonstrates the electrical nature of our universe.

The Hinode satellite program just announced a major scientific discovery, one that is going to have very profound implications for solar theory, and electric universe theory.  Evidently the Hinode instrument has been observing cathode ray activity in the northern polar regions of the sun since at least January of 2007.  The cathode rays they have observed are directionally vectored, they spew x-rays from the plasma jets, and they seem to strike the surface from several predefined directions (more than 7 in the video with 7 highlighted "events").  This observations of rays of energy, and high speed plasma jets in the solar atmosphere is a huge step forward in our understanding of solar activity.  It explains the huge outburst of energy we observe at intermittent intervals.  As cathode rays strike the lower solar atmosphere they trigger a massive electrical discharge process in the atmosphere and they accelerate the solar wind particles that are predominantly composed of protons and positively charged helium ions.   Not only does the discover of cathode rays in the solar atmosphere support Birkeland's solar theories, it shows the predictive usefulness of this theories and how they can be used to predict solar behaviors.  Birkeland was a man ahead of his time.  He was already simulating solar activity in his lab over 100 years ago!


Carbon Stars And The Mass Separation Of Elements

It seems that a brand new type of star has been discovered, and it directly supports our mass separated solar model.  It would seem that the atmospheres of stars are not limited to hydrogen and helium, but rather some stars can develop a *carbon* atmosphere.   Now of course that discovery of a carbon solar atmosphere isn't much of a surprise when you assume that all stars have a mass separated set of layers in their atmosphere as our model presumes, but that is quite a revelation for standard solar theory.  The quote for the article on how to explain this phenomenon was also quite interesting: 

If they are descendants of a star like H1504+65 (Teff ~ 200, 000 K), why don’t we see carbon/oxygen-rich white dwarfs at intermediate temperature? We believe that the simplest way to explain this is that a star like H1504+65, however it was formed, most probably still contains a tiny amount of helium which will eventually diffuse upward to form a thin layer ( 1015M is enough to form a full atmosphere!) above the C-enriched and O-depleted mantle.

In other words, they are suggesting that the easiest and simplest way to explain this solar behavior is to assume that the elements will tend to mass separate in the solar atmosphere.  :) 


The Gaping Hole In The Big Bang Theory.

Every so often, some new information comes along to demonstrate our basic ignorance of the universe around us.  The gaping hole that was recently discovered in the universe is one such example.  "Not only has no one ever found a void this big, but we never even expected to find one this size," said researcher Lawrence Rudnick of the University of Minnesota.   "What we've found is not normal, based on either observational studies or on computer simulations of the large-scale evolution of the universe," said Liliya R. Williams, also of the University of Minnesota.

Of course we must recognize that the hole they found is in fact "perfectly normal" for our universe, it simply defies our computer modeling entirely.  While EU theory predicts a threaded and non uniform universe, Big Bang theory has consistently predicted a smooth, nearly homogenous universe that is practically devoid of these sorts of "gaping holes" in the universe.  In fact, a nearly homogenous universe is one of the "key predictions" of inflation theory that the mainstream has touted as an important example of importance and usefulness of Big Bang theory.  It now turns out that this "key prediction" of Big Bang theory is critically flawed.  The real life observations of our "perfectly normal" universe refutes the homogenous predictions of the inflation period of Big Bang theory.  As usual, the mainstream will not embrace this new information as a key failure of Big Bang theory and therefore abandon that particular theory.  Instead they will do what they always do.  They will quickly revise their Gumby-Lambda thingamabob Big Bang theories  to "postdict" a new "key prediction" of a non-homogenous background and then they will claim that their new "prediction" is a key validation of "new and improved" Big Bang theory.  The consistent and numerous failures of the key predictions of Big Bang theory cannot ever be used to refute or falsify the Big Bang theory.  That is because Big Bang theory has become a type of quasi-religious dogma within the mainstream astronomy community.  Any observation that refutes the dogma must be incorporated into the new and improved Big Bang dogma.  Despite the fact that Big Bang theory relies upon no less than three different metaphysical entities, and it has never produced an accurate "prediction" in it's history, the dogma of Big Bang theory lives on in some revised form.  Of course the primary reason that the theory cannot ever be falsified is the fact it is based on three different metaphysical forces of nature.  If they can't explain the hole in the universe with inflation, then they can always chalk it up to one of the "dark" forces of nature that their Gumby-Lambda models rely upon.  Lambda theory has become the ultimate Gumby theory.  It can be bent and twisted like a pretzel simply by tweaking one of it's metaphysical variables.  Since these metaphysical variables cannot ever be falsified here on earth, there is no limit to the number of different outputs that can be "predicted" with the Gumby-Lambda thingamabob theory!  If one prediction is falsified, they can just tweak a metaphysical variable and make a new prediction that posticts the observation in question!  What a racket!  It's certainly no mystery why an ever growing list of scientists have called on astronomers  to fund other types of competing theories.  Plasma physics and EU theory do not require any type of "gap fillers" to bridge the gap between theory and observation. 

FYI, over the summer, I've been posting my theories on the Thunderbolts forum.  The Thunderbolts forum is devoted to the study of the science of plasma physics, and to exploring all non-metaphysical theories about the universe around us, without the bias of all the quasi-religious dogma that is currently being peddled by the mainstream institutions.  I'm finding the Thunderbolts forum to be a friendly place for real physical "science" (as opposed to metaphysical pseudo-science) to be explored in an open, honest and non threatening manner.  What a breath of fresh air that has been.  I started this thread that is specifically devoted to iron sun theories.  There are several other current threads that are related to this topic that I am also actively involved in, including the thread entitled "In EU, why does the sun have a black body spectrum?" and "The Electric Sun".


New Images From Hinode reveal solar atmospheric plasma behaviors that are 'impossible' to explain according to standard theory.

The Standard Solar Theorist's Slogan:  "Anything But Electricity!"

A Hinode Ca-H image of coronal loops traversing the solar atmosphere

According to the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, new images from the Hinode satellite program are already revealing solar atmospheric plasma behaviors that are "impossible" to explain using the current solar model.   Evidently the mainstream community is still having a hard time accepting the role of electrical currents in solar activity.  They are also having a very difficult time accepting the fact that Hannes Alfv'en actually did know what he was talking about when he described the electromagnetic interactions that take place in *light* (non dense) plasmas.   Hannes Alfv'en was the Nobel Prize winning author of magneto hydrodynamic theory.  He explained in his book "Cosmic Plasma":

"Again, it should be mentioned that there is no possibility of accounting for the energy of the particles as a result of 'magnetic merging' or of 'magnetic field-line reconnection', or any other mechanism which implies changing magnetic fields in the region of acceleration. In the region of the double layer, the magnetic field during the explosive transient phase is almost constant and cannot supply the required energy (of course, the secondary effects of the explosion also cause changes in the magnetic field)."

Handing Hannes Alfv'en the Nobel Prize for MDH theory didn't stop the mainstream community from ignoring his work.  According to Alfv'en, the energy release of these atmospheric solar events comes from the flow of electrical current, not from "magnetic reconnection" as  LMSAL and NASA have been trying to suggest.   Standard theorists try to claim that magnetic fields drive these high energy solar events, but according to the author of the principles of MHD theory, that is simply impossible.  If you read the article, Leon Golub from Cambridge explains one of these presumably "impossible" observations:

Crashing loops: Another surprise sighting is that of giant magnetic field loops crashing down onto the Sun's surface as if they were collapsing from exhaustion, a finding that Golub describes as "impossible". Previously, scientists thought they should emerge from the Sun and continue blowing out into space.

Golub may believe that this sort of plasma behavior is "impossible" to explain, but Hannes Alfv'en explained this behavior 25 years ago. The atmosphere of the sun is electrically active and it interacts with the electromagnetic fields of space.   Currents ebb and flow, particularly in the corona.  As soon as the electric currents that are flowing through a coronal loops stop flowing, say for instance the electric current seeks a shorter path of lesser resistance through the plasma, the suspended loop will deteriorate rapidly, and it will come crashing back to the surface.  As long as we accept Alfven's view that the coronal loops are electrically active and electrically driven, it's not such a mystery.  The same electrical current that is running through these massive loops, and heating them to millions of degrees, can instantly terminate.   In that scenario. these kinds of "crashing loop" observations become quite easy to explain using the principles of plasma cosmology theory and MHD theory.   It seems that even though the the astrophysical community presented Hannes Alfven with the Nobel Prize in the early 1970's for inventing MHD theory, they only heard and understood part of his plasma physics theories.  They immediately turned right around after giving him the Nobel Prize for MHD theory, and they completely ignored the other half of Alfven's statements related to MHD theory related to *light* plasma.  The mainstream community only "latched on" to the very early part of Alfven's work that was related to the flow of magnetic fields in very *dense* plasma.  They quite literally ignored all the rest of Alfv'en's life's work on light plasma.  Now that problem has come back to haunt the mainstream community in the Hinode images in a big way.

As Alfven explained from his work in plasma physics, certain types of plasma behaviors simply cannot be be properly modeled or properly understood without considering the electrical flow patterns that are traveling through the plasma.  Alfv'en warned the mainstream community during his acceptance speech for the Nobel Prize about trying to mathematically oversimplify every plasma behavior, and trying to model every plasma transaction as a purely "magnetic" event.  Some plasma events, like atmospheric discharges, are in fact electrically driven events, and in such scenarios, the electrical current in the plasma must also be considered.  While lightening strikes on earth generate magnetic fields as a result of the current flowing through the plasma of the bolt, the electrical discharge is not "caused" by changes to the magnetic fields.  The discharges in atmosphere are due to charge differences in the atmosphere, and charge equalization laws, not by magnetic fields.   In other words, the magnetic fields are the effect of the electrical discharge event, they are not the cause of the discharge event.  In this case, as Alfven warned, the mainstream community has the cart before the horse.  They find these observations to be "impossible", because they are not magnetic events, they are electrical events.  Clearly the observations are not impossible, it is the standard theory of magnetic reconnection that is "impossible".  Alfven already explained that to them more than 2 decades ago.  They just refused to listen.  Maybe they listen to Alfv'en again now that their current theories have failed to explain the solar atmospheric activity.


X-ray Images From Hinode

I think the motto of the mainstream solar community must be "Anything but electricity" since they seem to be looking for any possible way to avoid accepting the obvious solution to the coronal heating problem, and the high temperature coronal loops.  As electrical solar theory suggests the sun's corona is heated by the electrical current running through it.   These current flows create electrical discharge events in the suns atmosphere, just like they do here on earth. In fact the RHESSI satellite program has already provided strong evidence of electrical discharges in the solar atmosphere.  When RHESSI was pointed at the earth, they made a rather surprising discovery. They observed gamma ray discharges coming from the earth atmosphere.  Such gamma ray bursts are related to electrical discharges that occur regularly in the earth atmosphere.  Not surprisingly the RHESSI satellite also observes gamma ray bursts in the solar atmosphere as well.  These gamma ray bursts are also related to electrical discharges, this time to electrical discharges in the solar atmosphere.   Such gamma ray bursts occur in and around the footprints of the coronal loops, or the areas of electrical energy concentration.    This is tangible evidence that electrical discharges play a significant role in atmospheric activity, just as Alfven suggested over 25 years ago.    The image below is another image from the Hinode satellite using the G-Band filter using the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument.   The .2 arcsecond resolution of these SOT images is very impressive.

G-Band SOT image of the photosphere by Hinode

The European Space Agency has provided more movies and images from Hinode that can be found here.  For anyone interested in a very good video introduction to plasma cosmology theory, and Electric Universe theory, I highly recommend The Thunderbolt Of The God's Video. that is now viewable on Google.  I also highly recommend the Book "The Electric Sky" by Donald E. Scott.  If you're looking for a more in depth (mathematical) presentation of Alfv'en's material and plasma cosmology theory, I highly suggest the book "Cosmic Plasma" by Hannes Alfv'en.


The First STEREO Running Difference Images

As the STEREO images are beginning to come online, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the improvement in resolution that is provided by the next generation of satellite technologies is going to revolutionize solar astronomy.  It is clear from the very first images from each satellite program that the Hinode (Solar-B) and STEREO satellite systems will forever change solar astronomy as we understand it.  With four times the resolution of the SOHO images, the new full surface solar images from STEREO are already revealing far greater detail in the sun's surface activity than were ever before possible using previous satellite technology.  The four running difference images above were all created by images that were taken on December 27th, 2006 using the 171A filters on the STEREO-A and STEREO-B satellites.   The top two images were created by STEREO-A and STEREO-B images respectively by subtracting two images that were taken on 02:01 and 02:31.  The two bottom images represent the sun's surface features 21 hours later using images from 23:01 and 23:31.  The level of detail that is revealed in these high resolution STEREO running difference images is remarkable, and the surface features that are seen in the top two images are clearly visible 21 hours later.  The active features on the surface have rotated uniformly during that timeline.  You may click on each of the JPG images above to get a full resolution Running Difference GIF file of the same image.   Just as in the SOHO RD images, there are very distinct, long duration surface features that can be observed in the RD images which rotate uniformly from pole to equator and do not exhibit differential rotation patterns like the plasma in the solar atmosphere.  The multi-hour longevity of these surface structures are quite unlike the structures in the photosphere that are created and destroyed in approximately 8 minute intervals.  These persistent structures seen in running difference EUVI images last for hours and days, and rotate uniformly across the surface.


Mass Separation Of Plasma Discovered In Cassiopeia A's "Onion Skin" Atmosphere

This artist's concept illustrates an onion skin of mass separated plasmas encircled Cassiopeia A.

I definitely want to start this month's blog entry by congratulating the members of the Hinode (formerly Solar-B) and STEREO teams.  Both of these new and highly important solar satellite systems were launched successfully over the past month and a half. 

Hinode (aka Solar-B) and STEREO are successfully launched

Hinode includes a number of unique abilities and an assortment of new instruments to help us to add to, and improve our understanding of solar activity.  Hinode should finally be able to shed some light on the amount of electrical current that flows inside of the coronal loops.  The discovery of very powerful electrical currents flowing inside of the coronal loops should be quite a revelation to astronomers who tend to downplay the importance of electricity and the role of electricity in solar activity.  The astronomy industry in general tends to myopically focus only on the sun's magnetic fields.  The powerful magnetic fields that form at the solar surface however are actually caused by powerful electrical discharges that occur in the solar atmosphere.  Hinode (Solar-B) should help verify the importance of the role of electricity as it relates to coronal mass ejections, coronal loops and solar activity in general.

As I've discussed in previous blog entries, STEREO should finally take a lot of the guess work out of solar image analysis and allow us to tell where solar moss activity occurs in relationship to the chromosphere and photosphere.   STEREO will also allow us to map the trajectory of CMEs with far greater precision.  By comparing the the location of solar moss activity seen in the Secchi 171A 3D images with the location of the chromosphere seen in Secchi's 304A images, we should finally be able to determine the location of solar moss activity in relationship to the surface of the chromosphere.  By triangulation methods, we should also be able to determine the X,Y,Z components of coronal loops in relationship to the core of the sun.  Both of these things will allow us to finally place the "transition region" in mathematically precise ways, without requiring any sort of human interpretation.   That is a giant step forward in solar image analysis.

Several times a year some new and important information comes out that calls contemporary gas model solar theory into question, and lends strong credence and powerful support to a Birkeland solar model.  These past few months were no exception, but the information that was published earlier this month was simply "over the top" in terms of scope and importance.  Scientists have been carefully studying the remnants of Cassiopeia A and have gained remarkable insight as to the construction of that star before it exploded.   It seems that the plasma ejected from Cassiopeia A, shows that this star was composed of concentric "layers" of mass separated plasmas, with the lighter layers on top, and heavier layers underneath.  The verbiage and the onion skin analogy that was used in the article was particularly ironic from my perspective, particularly since the onion skin analogy was the very same analogy that Dr. Manuel used to describe the solar atmosphere when we first began discussing his work in nuclear chemistry.  According to nuclear chemical analysis, the sun's plasma are arrange by weight, and form in layers, much like an "onion skin" around the solar core.  I had also reached the very same conclusion about mass separated plasmas based on what I had seen in the satellite images.   The solar model I originally proposed is in the image right below this entry.   As you can see from the model below, Dr. Manuel and I (and Hilton Ratcliffe) have suggested that the solar atmosphere is mass separated by weight based on two different kinds of analysis.  The onion skin that formed around Cassiopeia is not unique. That is what all stars do.  They form "layers" of plasma around them that are mass separated by atomic weight.   This is perfectly congruent with experiments here on earth.   Plasmas tend to mass separate right down to the individual isotope in the presence of strong magnetic and gravitational fields, both of which exist in great abundant at the solar surface.  It should not be surprising that *all* solar bodies cause mass separation of plasmas.  That is the nature of stars.  They contain a huge gravity well, and powerful magnetic fields.  These forces, along with a steady flow of hydrogen from the surface, separate the plasma in the solar atmosphere, with the hydrogen and helium layers forming the outside layers of all stars.



The Melting Point Of Iron And More Interesting Tidbits Of Supporting Data

I wanted to begin this month's blog entry with an answer to a common email question I receive.  I also wanted to address some common misconceptions about the Birkeland solar model, and add some new satellite data from other satellite programs to the growing body of evidence that continues to provide support for a Birkeland solar model.

I am often asked how a the mostly iron surface can remain solid at roughly 5700 degrees Kelvin.  The simple answer is that the solid surface of the sun isn't anywhere near 5700 degrees Kelvin, but rather it is somewhere between 1500 and 2000 degrees Kelvin.  The surface is covered by a progression of mass separated plasma layers that are thickest and coolest near the surface, and  become progressively hotter as they become thinner in the upper atmosphere.

The melting point of iron is actually variable depending on the specific conditions.  According to Livermore scientists, iron is capable of remaining solid here on (in) earth to temperatures up to 5100 degrees Kelvin.   The surface of the sun however is nowhere near that temperature.  The surface of the sun is covered by a variety of mass separated plasma layers that are cooler and more dense near the surface, and become progressively hotter as they become less dense in the upper atmosphere.   The 5700 degree neon photosphere is relatively thick, dense material and therefore it is relatively cool compared to the sun's lighter helium chromosphere, where temperatures can range up to 20,000 degrees Kelvin.  Likewise the helium chromosphere is considerably more dense and cooler than the sun's light, whispy hydrogen corona.  That same arrangement of cooler, more dense plasmas, covered by thinner, hotter plasmas is repeated below the photosphere as well.   According to heliosiesmology estimates there is a 4800 kilometer distance between the top of the photosphere and the actual surface of the sun.   The neon photosphere is only about 400 to 500 kilometers in depth.   The silicon plasma layer is located under the photosphere.  It is by far the thickest of the sun's plasma layers and is approximately 3000 KM in depth.  It ranges in temperature from about 2500 degrees at the bottom to about 4500 degrees Kelvin where it meets up with the photosphere.  These dramatically lower plasma temperatures have been evidenced in upwelling plasma in the umbra region of a sunspot during sunspot activity.   Underneath the thick silicon layer, sits a very dense plasma layer of calcium.  The calcium plasma layer is cooler and significantly more dense than the silicon plasma layer.   The actual surface of the sun is covered by a calcium plasma layer that is approximately 1500 to 2500 degrees Kelvin from bottom to top, meaning the surface is roughly 1500 degrees Kelvin, not 5700 degrees Kelvin.

I also found a couple more satellite programs that offer us some tantalizing observations to support a Birkeland solar model, including a satellite created by students at Colorado University.  Data from the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) satellite have verified that our Sun emits far more x-ray energy than once thought.  In addition, SNOE has demonstrated that this x-ray activity increases by a factor of 5 during the sun's active phases and decreases again during it's quiet phases.  This drastic change in x-ray output during the solar cycle is highly consistent with the premise that the coronal loops emit much of the x-rays released from the sun.  This correlation between coronal loop activity and x-ray emissions has been graphically demonstrated in this movie based on data from the SORCE and SOHO programs.   This graph of the sun's x-ray output from the SORCE program combined with the visual SOHO EIT image of the sun, demonstrate that when surface activity peaks in 171A as seen by SOHO, so too the sun's x-ray emissions spike significantly.  This behavior of x-ray output being directly related to coronal loop activity is completely consistent with the prediction of a Birkeland solar model.  It was a phenomenon that Birkeland even produced in his lab.  Any significant change of coronal loop activity directly relates to a change in x-ray output.  As the sun enters it's active phase and the sun becomes more electrically active, and the x-ray output of the sun increases up to five fold.  As the sun enters it's quiet phase again, the coronal loop activity drops and the the x-ray output decreases significantly.   This same effect can actually be demonstrated with a standard plasma ball here on earth.  With sufficient voltage, even a simple plasma ball can create filaments that emit x-rays.

Another interesting link I found describes the temperatures that were created in z-pinch forces in in the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories.  It seems that when you combine metals, electricity and plasma, it's possible to create temperatures in plasma that reach nearly 2 billion (US) degrees Kelvin while emitting x-rays galore.  This is more than enough energy to release free neutrons and initiate hydrogen fusion and CNO fusion reactions in the solar atmosphere.  These are the kinds of experiments that demonstrate quite conclusively that current flow plays a very large role in coronal loop activity and x-ray output from the sun.


Blackbody Concepts, Sunspot Activity And Sea Surface Temperatures

According to standard solar theory, blackbody principles apply to sunspot activity.  When explaining sunspots,  gas model solar theory suggests that the reason that the umbra of a sunspot is darker than the photosphere is because this region is roughly 2000 degrees "cooler" than the surrounding photosphere.  If that was the case, and this whole region were cooler than the surrounding photosphere, we would expect to see an increase in sunspot activity would result in a noticeable decrease of ocean temperatures.  This however is the exact opposite of what we actually observe here on earth.   While it may be true that *some* areas of a sunspot are actually cooler than the photosphere, in a Birkeland solar model the umbra represents an area of upwelling silicon plasma that is being heated and pushed upward by the increased electrical activity at the surface.   In a Birkeland model we would expect to see an "average" temperature in a sunspot that is in fact *higher* than the surrounding areas of the photosphere.  This increase in temperature during sunspot activity would tend to correlate to an increase in ocean temperatures here on earth, while a decrease in sunspot activity would result in a cooler ocean temperatures.   Indeed, when we look at the graph above, we see that an increase in sunspot activity is directly associated with an increase in sea temperatures.  Likewise, when sunspot activity is low, the ocean temperatures tend to drop.   While this confirms the predictions of a Birkeland solar model quite convincingly, this temperature trend directly refutes the standard explanation for the cause of  sunspot activity.  If these sunspots were actually cooler on average than the surrounding material, then we would expect to see a *decrease* in sea temperatures with an increase in sunspot activity, and an increase in ocean temperature during quiet phases of the  solar cycle.  This is just the opposite of what we actually observe.  This is just another perfect example of the ever increasing amount of data that directly falsifies current solar theory, while simultaneously confirming the Birkeland solar model.


Where's the Moss?

If you're old enough to remember the Wendy's commercial, "Where's the Beef?", and you are results oriented, you will probably appreciate this next "prediction" related to the STEREO satellite program.  One of the most significant differences between a Birkeland solar model interpretation of these satellite images and current gas model interpretation, relates to the placement of the solar moss events in relationship to the surface of the photosphere.   The 'Trace' spacecraft is an abbreviation for "Transition Region And Coronal Explorer".  Even before the TRACE spacecraft was launched, there was an "assumption" made inside of Lockheed Martin about where we should expect to find these million degree plasmas.  Specifically the expectation was that we should expect to see such activity begin somewhere above the photosphere.  Since that time, LMSAL has consistently "interpreted" this solar moss activity as originating approximately 1000-1500 kilometers above the surface of the photosphere.  The problem with satellite image interpretation is that all TRACE, Yohkoh and SOHO images are only two dimensional images.  The depth aspect has thus far required human "interpretation", but all of that is about to change in a radical way thanks to the hard work and efforts by the folks involved in the STEREO satellite program. 

STEREO will finally allow us to study the solar atmosphere in all three dimensions for the very first time.  Three dimensional solar moss images will give us an extremely reliable way to determine if Lockheed's placement was a valid "assessment" on their part, or if their original assumptions and expectations regarding the location of the transition region have done more harm than good as it relates to satellite image interpretation.  According to a Birkeland solar model, these emissions should begin at the solar surface.  Based on data from the field of heliosiesmology the surface of the sun is located at about 4800km below the white light surface of the photosphere.  Lockheed Martin however contends that these solar moss events occur far above the photosphere, and they label this region the "transition region".  Determining the precise location of this solar moss activity in three dimensions then becomes a very useful way to determine the validity of LMSAL's early assumptions and expectations about the location of this region in relationship to the photosphere.  It will also allow us to test their (and my) skills at satellite image "interpretation".  Determining the precise location of these solar moss events in relationship to the surface of the photosphere will allow us to test the accuracy of both "interpretations".  If Lockheed Martin's interpretation is correct, then this solar moss activity should take place between 1000 and 1500 kilometers above the visible photosphere.  If a Birkeland interpretation of the satellite images is correct, then STEREO should "discover" that these solar moss events are in fact originating underneath of the surface of the photosphere, not above it.  Only one of these two "interpretations" can be accurate and there is a 6000km difference in distance, and a 4000+ degree difference in temperature between these two "interpretations".  The real question then to determining which interpretation is accurate is: "Where's the Moss"?  STEREO should be able to answer that question for us, once and for all.  Hopefully we should see some results from STEREO in a few months.  Stay tuned!


Credit: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

I thought I'd use this year's summer solstice to stick my neck out a bit and make a couple of important predictions about the upcoming STEREO program, and the data it is likely to return.  Since STEREO will be able to observe the sun's atmosphere in three dimensions for the first time in human history, STEREO will afford us the opportunity to verify or falsify some important predictions of both a Birkeland solar model and current gas model theories.   There are two important differences between current gas model theory and a Birkeland solar model that STEREO should be able to resolve once and for all.

The first key prediction of a Birkeland solar model is the position of the base of the coronal loops in relationship to the surface of the photosphere.  In a Birkeland solar model, the base of the coronal loops begin at the solar surface.  According to the heliosiesmology data from Stanford, the solar surface is located roughly 4800KM *below* the surface of the photosphere.  On the other hand, according to Lockheed Martin and current gas model theory, the base of the coronal loops originate in the lower corona or the "transitional region", far *above* the surface of the photosphere.   This is a key difference between the two solar models and only one of these "interpretations" can be accurate.  

The next important prediction of a Birkeland solar model which STEREO should be able to confirm or falsify is the location of the calcium plasma emissions in relationship to the chromosphere.  According to contemporary gas model theory, the calcium emissions we see coming from the sun, originate in the sun's chromosphere.  In a Birkeland solar model however, all the plasmas in the solar atmosphere are arranged by atomic weight.  This would suggest that the calcium plasma is much heavier than helium rich chromosphere.  Therefore the calcium ion emissions should originate from underneath of the neon photosphere, and from underneath of the helium chromosphere, not from the chromosphere as current gas model theory predicts.  STEREO should be able to confirm or falsify this positioning, and again, only one of these predictions can be accurate.   STEREO should be able to demonstrate that the solar plasmas are arranged by atomic weight.  Since these theories are mutually exclusive, the location of the calcium ion emissions in relationship to the chromosphere is another very significant and testable difference between the Birkeland solar model, and contemporary gas model theory.


In an effort to begin to understand the movement and the flow patterns of the sun's coronal loops, I have been spending most of my free time studying the work of Dr. Hannes AlfvénDr. Alfvén was the creator of the field of science of plasma flow now called magnetohydrodynamics, and was awarded the Nobel prize for his work in 1970.  Throughout his published career, Alfvén wrote many papers commenting on the practical use of MHD theory in astronomy, as well as it's inappropriate misuse by many in the astronomical community during his tenure and even to this day.  Alfvén demonstrated that when the density of plasma is decreased, the importance of electrical current flow, the kinetic energy, and the resistance of the plasma is often more relevant and meaningful than the orientation of the magnetic fields.  That is never more true than inside coronal loops where the flow of electricity and the kinetic energy within the moving plasma filament is far more relevant than the magnetic fields.  The current flow and kinetic energy of the coronal loop sustains the loop. These loops are not “frozen” magnetic fields in solid plasma, rather these loops are moving columns of flowing plasma that are driven by DC currents that are running through the coronal loop filaments.   The coronal loops discharge current from a negatively charged area of the surface discharge toward a positively charged surface area.  The coronal loops are simply large scale plasma filaments driven by electrical currents, much like we find in a common plasma ball.  The plasmas in the filaments are moving and flowing through the solar plasma atmosphere in tight filamentary structures in much the same way as we see filaments forming in any electrified plasma environment.


In today's news, the Spitzer telescope program provided additional information about solar system formation processes and additional confirmation of Dr. Manuel's neutron core theories.   Spitzer has now confirmed that when a sun goes supernova and "blows up", it tends to blow its iron content and heavy elements into a disk that eventually forms into a new solar system.  The heavy elements ejected into the disk provide the materials that eventually coalesce into planets.   Spitzer has now demonstrated that this proto-solar condition, complete with heavy planetary materials in the disk, and a neutron core in the center holding it together, is exactly as Dr. Oliver Manuel predicted it would look prior to solar system reconstruction.   A naked neutron core will tend to attract an iron or metallic sphere around itself due to its exceptionally strong magnetic field.  Once that outer shell reforms, a solar atmosphere can reform around the iron shell and a new, albeit somewhat smaller star begins to form from what was once considered a "dead" star.  If there is enough neon in the remaining material, the star will form a neon photosphere and produce photons in the visual spectrum.   This new information from Spitzer suggests that solar system formation is likely to be highly cyclical in nature.   A large star forms and eventually explodes leaving a neutron core in the center while it spreads its heavy metals into a solar disk.  The remaining neutron core eventually reforms a new iron shell and plasma atmosphere, while the materials in the disk form into new planets, and the cycle begins anew.  Eventually the new star goes supernova again, and process repeats itself until the neutron core eventually becomes too small to form a stable shell and eventually explodes.  This minimum stable configuration "M(min)" has been calculated to occur at around .189M (solar masses) including the shell.


A couple of articles caught my attention this week.  One article was entitled: "Why Is The Suns Corona Hotter Than The Sun Itself."  This question is actually pretty easy to explain with a Birkeland solar model.  The coronal loops are composed of rising columns of superheated metallic plasma as shown in this NASA animation.  These electrified columns of metallic plasma are made of surface materials that have been ionized in the arc as it rises from the surface.  Because these arcs are electrically energized, they operate at a much higher temperature than the plasma in the solar atmosphere.  As these columns of rising superheated material pass through the atmosphere, they pass their heat into the surrounding solar atmosphere.  Each outer plasma layer of the sun gets progressively lighter and hotter.  The neon photosphere is relatively dense and relatively cool compared to the lighter helium chromosphere above it.  In turn the chromosphere is more dense and considerably cooler than the hydrogen corona.  The corona being the least dense, is also the highest temperature plasma.  That is due to the fact that there are fewer and atoms for the heat to disperse through as the loop travels through the various layers.  As the coronal loops pass through lighter and lighter plasma layers, from the photosphere, to the chromosphere to the corona, each layer is heated by the loops.  As the loops reach into the corona, they glow in the soft x-ray spectrum.  As the loops reach the corona, the corona is simply too light and is too sparsely populated to to re-absorb these soft x-ray emissions. The following image and this animation of the same event by NASA gives us a Trace/Yohkoh overlay view of solar moss activity.  It also shows a set of coronal loops rising through the solar atmosphere.

The blue regions are the view from the Trace satellite system using it's 171A filter.  The yellow areas represent Yohkoh's view in the soft x-ray spectrum using it's SXT filter.  As the coronal loops reach the corona, the glow from the soft x-ray spectrum comes into Yohkoh's view as shown in yellow.   While the arcs emit x-rays all along the coronal loop, these emissions are mostly reabsorbed by the photosphere and chromosphere.   It is only as the arcs/loops reach the corona that Yohkoh can begin to clearly observe the emissions from the coronal loops.

The other article that caught my attention was this article about changes in the earth's magnetotail on August 5th, 2004.  I went back to the SOHO running difference images for that day to get some idea of what was going on at the solar surface on that day. 

Throughout that day there were two very electrically active areas on both sides of the equator facing directly toward the earth.  These regions were interacting with one another all day.  It is probable that the flow of current between these two surface points and the electrical activity occurring in these areas had a lot to do with the event the satellites witnessed in the magnetotail.  Electromagnetic currents flow between the sun and the earth and the current flow patterns on the solar surface can directly affect the earth and the earths electromagnetic field.   The fact that witness and experience powerful magnetic reconnection events has been verified by the ESA Cluster spacecraft and the NASA Wind and ACE satellites.  Esa's cluster mission has also revealed a three dimensional model of the magnetic turbulence in the magnetosheath during these electromagnetic exchanges between the sun and the earth.


More fun with solar flares.  I've run across some rather interesting flares and related solar phenomenon on Lockheed's website that I wanted to keep handy during debates.   I'll mention some of them here and remind myself of the location of each of the links.  All the images come from this page and are provided by Lockheed Martin.  In this event (movie 59) we see a "tadpole" event where material from above the event is being "sucked in" by the magnetic fields of the electrical discharges.  In this video (61) we see a fractured piece of the surface rise up into the atmosphere where it is promptly obliterated by the electrical blowout that ensues.  This movie (67) shows a current loop being "pinched off" and replaced by a shorter, more direct, more energetic current flow much closer to the surface.  Here (47) we see a material being ejected as in a jet rising up from the surface in a straight line and then the same material is sucked back down again to the surface.  In this movie (48) we find four distinct "hot spots" all interacting with one another.  Here (29) we find what Lockheed describes as a filament draining into the umbra as material spirals around and into a point.  Here we see more tornado like structures forming in the solar atmosphere.  Here (96) is another massive surface discharge


I thought I'd share a few of my current cyberspace "hangouts", where I actually debate these ideas so others can join in the debate and comment in real time if they are so inclined.  I'm currently participating in two active forums, the Astronomy forum on Uplink on the forums, and also at "Skeptic Friends Network".   You are welcome to join one of these two active conversations if you are so inclined.   I have participated on the Skeptic Friends Network for several months now and I have come to like Dave and Dr. Mabuse a great deal, even if we remain far from agreement at the moment.  :)  They both however are very good "skeptics", even if Dave is sometimes a bit gruff at times.   Saiph at the Uplink forums looks to be an excellent and educated astronomer as well, and I actually prefer his "debate style".  I'm just getting started at Uplink on, but the conversations there are very interesting, and the forum seem to be well moderated.  In fact my hat is off to the moderators at both sites.  The debates have been lively, fair and very interesting. 

I've learned a great deal over the past month.  One of the primary issues that keeps cropping up in these conversations, and a very critical issue that must be addressed is the heat source of coronal loops.  These sometimes massive loops are heated by the electrical current that is running through them like we see during this Bastille Day flare.   In fact, we can see that these electrical arcs are the focus of the energy emissions from all three iron ion filters on the Trace spacecraft.  "Electricity" is the great "mystery" that seems to elude gas model theorists as it comes to explaining the heat source of the coronal loops.  The temperature does not drop off with height because the loop is constantly being heated by the electrical current that is running through the arc.  That constant flow of electricity is what sustains these coronal loops over one spot for a period of hours and even days.  In some cases we can actually see loop oscillations far out in the corona that are caused by the electromagnetic disturbance of the flare near the surface.  Here we can see outbound jets that are directed by the electromagnetic fields in the corona and we see similar sorts of inbound jets in this image.  These loops do not only "not sag", they actually grow in size and continue to flow even over the span of many hours such as this six hour time sequence of loop evolution and coronal rain activity.

The other issue that is key to this debate is the notion of mass separation.  Dr. Oliver Manuel (my good friend) has spent three decades documenting that the solar atmosphere is mass separated via careful isotope analysis of lunar soil samples and comets.  Satellite imagery has recently confirmed that the solar atmosphere is mass separated in several ways, most visually in the form of a rigid surface, and many images of "coronal rain".  We also see evidence of mass separation in the presence of at least three agreed upon plasma layers of the sun, the photosphere, the chromosphere and the corona.  Each of these regions is associated with it's own temperature and density range.  The photosphere is more densely packed and is cooler than the lighter layers above.  The chromosphere is considerably lighter and hotter than the photosphere and the corona is lighter and hotter still.   These three distinct plasma layers, with three unique densities and temperature ranges have already been documented and agreed upon.   The images of coronal rain falling through the corona demonstrates that these regions are composed of materials with radically different densities.   There is also additional evidence of mass separation in sunspot activity where we see a very clear visual delineation at the base of the penumbral filaments which all end at a very specific depth.  This clear visual delineation between light and dark areas at the end of the filaments is where the neon filaments meet up with and end at the silicon layer below.   In fact, it is the upwelling of a rising column of heated silicon plasma that creates the holes in the neon photosphere, and exposes the sides of the neon penumbral filaments during sunspot activity.   We can actually see, cool dense material being hurled into space in the electrical eruptions from the surface.  In this movie we can see a dense and dark "cloud" in the lower right corner is being hurled into the coronal loops at the top of the image, causing the coronal loops to sway in the breeze.  Here we can see a top down view of a similar surface flare episode.  This time. the dark and dense cloud of heavier materials is flowing in an arched path with the center loop just before the flare.  When the flare occurs, that dense cooler cloud of material is hurled from the center arc, upward and towards the top of the image.  In this movie, we can see this material ejected changing course in the constantly changing magnetic fields and is pulled right back down toward the surface.


New Zealand Rocks!   As of today, the website traffic from New Zealand has made up about 8% of the total website traffic for this month.  For such a modest sized country, that is simply unbelievable.   That is greater than the combined monthly traffic of the next three largest countries of the UK, Canada and Australia combined.  That is really awesome.   The website also reached a numerical milestone this month.  This website has now been visited by over a quarter of a million individuals from more than one hundred and forty countries since May of 2005.  You gotta love the power of Google. :)

Since I get a lot of emails and questions about my opinions regarding the topic of plasma cosmology, I thought I'd give this topic a bit of column space this week.   It is my opinion that a gravity oriented, big bang, gas model approach to astronomy will eventually give way to an Electric Universe, plasma cosmology oriented approach that includes and acknowledges the very large scale Birkeland currents that flow through our universe.   Once this enlightenment process begins to pick up steam, current gravity oriented gas model ideas will seem about as credible as believing the earth is flat or that the earth is the center of the universe, or that gravity alone is the driving force of solar system formation.  In fact we already have substantial evidence to suggest that gravity is *not*  the only force that drives  solar system formation.   Most likely Birkeland currents are involved in this process and in every process within our very electric universe.  There are quite a few really excellent websites devoted to the topic of plasma cosmology, including and Thunderbolts.   The electric universe model is certainly going to replace the current gravity-centric notions of astronomy in the next few decades.  

Several articles have come out recently that further demonstrate the presence and the effects of Birkeland currents both inside and outside of our solar system.   It seems there is now evidence to suggest that Mars also experiences aurorae.   The ionosphere of Mars is also affected by x-ray flares from the sun, much as the earth is affected by these same events.  These two phenomenon demonstrate that Birkeland currents play a major role in daily solar system activity.  This is because the sun and the earth as well as other planets are predominantly made of iron.  Preliminary data from the Stardust satellite confirm yet again that iron comes from meteorites, which are themselves iron rich because they are ultimately composed of supernova remnants.  There has also been recent confirmation of massive sized Birkeland currents in space.    It seems that Birkeland was more than 100 years ahead of his time, but many of his electrical current theories have been verified time and time again, not to mention satellite confirmation of his solar model. :)


The Spitzer Telescope is starting to reveal more clues about solar collision events and solar formation processes.  These events reveal the presence of a significant amount of crystal silicates.   This "discovery" helps us to confirm that other suns also have a silicon plasma layer that covers their surface, just as our own sun has a silicon plasma layer that covers it's surface.  Another interesting "discovery" this week involves Saturn.  Saturn is currently experiencing a very large electrical storm event in it's atmosphere.  It seems that lightning bolts on Saturn are up to 1000 times more powerful than lightning that we experience here on earth.  This information suggests that the largest bodies in our solar system (including the sun) are considerably more electrically active than smaller bodies.    I also ran across a very interesting new paper from Alexander Kosovichev that demonstrates the presence of waves in the photosphere on dates and times that are directly associated with surface fractures that can be seen in 195A SOHO images.  His new work includes the January 15th, 2005 event that is listed on the sunquake page of this website.   On all three dates listed, there are noticeable surface fractures that can be seen in the raw SOHO images.    These surface fractures are what create the tsunami like waves in the photosphere.


Over the last couple of weeks I've been studying the heliosiesmology work of Dr. Alexander Kosovichev from Stanford University in greater depth.  While his most recent paper confirms the presence of stratification layer at .995, extending to about .985R, some of Kosovichev's earlier work demonstrates that this stratification layer can and does block the flow of plasma.   In figure 2A, we see the mass flow patterns in the plasma above the stratification layer.  The movement of mass in the area above the stratification layer is generally oriented downward, as plasma moves toward the downward spiraling column of plasma.  This is very consistent with the tornado like features we often see in the solar atmosphere.   Figure 2B represents the material flow in the area beneath the stratification layer.  In this region however the material flows generally upward and away from the rising column of material.  This flow behavior is consistent with a rising heated column reaching the underside of a dense crust and spreading itself out along the underside of the crust.   Figure 3 represents the flow patterns seen over a very great depth.  We see that the downward oriented plasma flows ends, and flattens out at the same place the stratification layer begins.

Figures 2(a) and 2(b) - Click on the images for a larger view

Figure 3

I also came across some interesting information from the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy.    This website talks about Ulysses observations of sector boundaries at aphelion.  It visually animates the flow patterns of Birkeland currents through the iron sun at the sun rotates slowly over time.  This movie demonstrates the spiral pattern that is created in the current flow around the sun as the predominantly iron sun slowly rotates on its spin axis.


I find sunspot activity to be quite fascinating.  The tornado like structures that emerge in the solar atmosphere carry the heat from the arcs down below up into the upper atmosphere into massive hurricane sized events.  These events disperse vast amounts of mass and heat and energy that extend far out into the solar system.  Some of that material is drawn back by gravity and falls again as coronal rain.


After receiving over 4000 hits from a single blog in the month of January, I am now sold on the power of the blog.  I also seem to be learning something interesting and new (to me at least) about the sun every week, sometimes every day, so I thought I'd start a web log to make notes about the data I collect as I discover new facts about the sun.  I eventually intend to turn this page into a real blog that will allow others to comment.  For the time being however, I'll use this page to make current notes that strike me as interesting and I will update this page regularly, treating it as more or less a "current news" page.


LMSAL: For Goodness Sake, Fix Your Website!

The first subject I would like to tackle on the blog relates back to an online conversation I was having before being rudely burned at the virtual stake for my heretical beliefs.  Since I didn't quite get a sense of completion on that topic, I'll lay out the materials that I have been collecting to support my analysis of these images, including some new materials that I never had the opportunity to post.  This information relates to a conversation I was engaged in concerning the topic of black body radiation and how that relates to a series of images that Lockheed Martin misidentified on their website.

The images above are the images in question.  The blue/green images are processed images that attempt to show heat signatures within the solar atmosphere, whereas the orange image is a raw (but colorized) image from the Trace spacecraft taken at 171A.   According to Lockheed's website, the base of the coronal loops shown in red are cooler than the surrounding materials.  This is false and misleading according to NASA.  According to NASA, the bulk of the heating takes place at the base of the coronal loops:

"The TRACE observations show that instead, most of the heating must occur at the bases of the coronal loops, near where they emerge from and return to the solar surface."

If the heating occurs at the base of the loop, then the heat itself and the heat mechanism is also concentrated at that point.  The heating and cooling at the base of the arc is directly related to the flow of current at that moment in time.  The source of energy to heat the base of the arcs is electricity, specifically electrons flowing from the surface features and ionizing surface solids into plasma into the coronal loops.  NASA's assessment of heating at the base of the arc is also confirmed by Rhessi/Trace images which show that the base of the coronal loops/arcs is the point of positron/electron annihilation.  The neutron capture wavelengths are circled in red, while the positron/electron annihilation areas are circled in the blue regions at the base of the electrical arcs.  The blue, high energy emissions are located along the surface at the base of the arc. This recent paper from Lockheed Martin also explains the wide range of high temperature sensitivity of the 171A and 195A filters onboard the Trace spacecraft.  While the 171A images are typically considered to be sensitive to only to FE IX/X ion photons in the 1 million degree range, this same filter is also quite capable of seeing calcium emissions in the 4 million Kelvin range and even FE XX ion photons in the 10-20 million Kelvin range.   In addition, the University of Maryland has also demonstrated that the coronal loops generate photon emissions that are consistent with plasma temperatures of over 1000 million (1 US Billion) degrees Kelvin.

The soft x-ray Yohkoh image on the left was taken at the dawn of new Millennium as the sun reached the peak of it's active solar cycle.  Yohkoh allowed us for the first time to observe the highest energy emissions from the sun.  Yohkoh showed us that the highest energy photons, and the areas of greatest heat concentration are located in and around the coronal loops, just as Dr. Kristian Birkeland's model predicts.   The dark areas of the solar surface represent the chromosphere and photosphere that are measured in the thousands of degrees Kelvin, whereas the loops/arcs coming from the surface carry heated plasma that is in excess of 1 million degrees Kelvin.  Rhessi and Yohkoh have both demonstrated that the highest energy emissions come from the arcs and from the  base of the arcs where the arcs touch the solar surface.  The arcs will sometimes rise up through the plasma of the photosphere and chromosphere and into the corona where they can be seen emitting in the x-ray spectrum against a dark photosphere-chromosphere background.   Yohkoh, Geos and Rhessi have all demonstrated this phenomenon. All three satellites consistently show that the highest energy photons and the hottest areas of the sun are directly related to the electrical flow within the arc.   Just as Lockheed Martin's Analysis of the Bastille Day flare demonstrates, 171A images are fully capable of picking up not only the Fe IX/X photons, but also Calcium photons in the 4 Million degree range and Fe XX ion photons in the 10-20 million degree range as well.  Any interpretation of photon emissions from the surface must take this very large, very wide heat range of the 171A and 195A filters into account.   Because of this high temperature sensitivity, it is physically impossible for the dark regions of the surface which emit no light in the original two images to be "hotter" or more energetic than the brightest areas of the original images.  These same filters are ultimately sensitive to a range of temperatures that far exceeds anything remotely related to the surface of the photosphere and chromosphere.   Lockheed Martin's analysis of the 171A and 195A images is flawed.  The base of the coronal loops is brighter and hotter than anything else on the surface in both images.  Black body concepts certainly DO apply here in a very standard way.  The 171A an 195A emissions are concentrated in and around the arc, because electricity is flowing through that arc and heating the iron plasma to million plus degree temperatures against a backdrop of thousand degree plasma layers.





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